Blog & Podcast

Andres Vargas PhD(c) on Getting the Most Out of Your Strength/Bodybuilding Training

The podcast can be found at
Andres can be found on social media platforms @thestrengthcave

Get tickets for Andres’s upcoming seminar here

0:00 Introduction
1:00 Andres’s current training plan + how he’s recovering from back issues
4:44 Andres’s philosophy on specificity at different times of the training season
6:25 How have bodybuilding clients responded to a focus on general strength training?
8:27 Adapting your training variables and methods to continue progress
11:00 Taking time off the comp. lifts to set yourself up for strength gains later on
13:46 Should lifters focus on movement patterns rather than specific lifts?
17:10 General Physical Preparedness (GPP) and its relevance for all sports
18:25 Different approaches to improve GPP including High-Intensity Continuous Training (HICT)
20:40 How HICT can benefit strength and power athletes
23:30 Athletes neglect the importance of recovery
25:10 Physical pain signals as a sign of fatigue or poor recovery
27:40 How does Andres work around a client’s busy life to help them make progress?
33:05 The value of incorporating Strongman elements into strength and power athletes’s programs?
37:50 Powerlifting meet planning is more than lifting as much as you can
40:40 Prioritizing specific muscle groups and nutritional concerns for bodybuilders
44:40 Why a low fat diet is not advantageous for bodybuilders and/or gen.pop
48:30 A discussion about coaches being regarded as health care professionals and upcoming trends in the fitness industry
56:40 Andres’s upcoming seminar after the Olympia and wrap-up
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Rest Periods and Tempo Training: Do They Matter?

We’re rounding out the last post about how to design an exercise program! We’ll be quickly discussing the value or rest periods and tempo training and whether they actually matter for strength and/or hypertrophy. This concept was originally developed by Dr. Eric Helms, you can find the original post here about the Muscle and Strength Training Pyramid and its corresponding videos. Let’s wrap up!

Rest Periods

Rest periods are similar to dieting, there’s no best rest period time, it’s more about doing what works for you and giving yourself adequate time to recover before your next set. Contrary to popular belief, it’s likely more beneficial to make sure you have had enough time to rest as opposed to constantly making yourself work or only giving yourself half a minute even if you’re still sucking in air. Why?

When you don’t give yourself enough time to recover from your sets, you run the risk of hindering your performance for the following sets. If your program calls for squats at 85% of your 1RM for 4 reps and you only rest for a minute, you’re not likely to get the same amount of reps and only get 2 or 3, reducing your volume. You then rest again for only a minute, you’re probably going to do even worse and get only 1 or 2, further reducing your total volume. It’s not worth it to try to “beastmode” it up and keep your breathing up while doing heavy or high-volume work. Remember, you’re lifting weights, not doing cardio. The focus in the gym should be on building muscle or improving your strength, both of which require you to be well-recovered for each rep and set.

Now, there are occasions where it’s okay to decrease rest periods-by intensity. For example, if you’re pressed for time and just need to fit in as much as you can, you may need to lower he rest periods so you can fit in more volume. Another case may be when you’re finishing up your workout and doing a metabolite-accumulation exercise (BFR, supersets, ngatives, etc.) These techniques are meant to pack in a lot of volume in a short period of time and accumulate a lot of metabolic wastes and by-products in the muscle tissue. The thought behind this is that it leads to increased hypertrophy¹ (not strength). Conversely, these techniques do contribute to a lot of fatigue, and should be completed at the end of your workout. These strategies should not be implemented every workout since they do increase fatigue, they also increase potential for injury.

To conclude, give yourself enough time between sets to recover. It’s advantageous to do so because it will allow you to complete your reps and maintain your volume rather than lower your volume because you’re too tired. Less rest time may be beneficial if you’re on a time-crunch or when doing metabolite training.

Carl Juneau does a fantastic podcast on Sigma Nutrition Radio about rep ranges and other strategies with manipulating the rest periods to optimize hypertrophy.


The very last piece of the pyramid: Tempo! Tempo is simply the velocity at which you’re lifting weights from an eccentric or concentric standpoint. Honestly, there’s not a whole lot to say about it because it’s at the top of the pyramid for a reason; it’s just not that important. Sure, doing negatives every now and then may feel good and give you a good pump and burn, but you’re reducing your volume so you can increase the time under tension, mitigating the degree of hypertrophy you can obtain from that set.

Dr. Helms has a great video explaining this concept and why it’s not as important as one may think. You can check it out here.

Tempo training is an even worse idea for strength training. Think about it: your goals is to be stronger. With tempo training, you must reduce the load to lift at a slower tempo. Not only do they work completely against each other, but heavy weights near 1RM are going to determine the tempo, not you. It’s nearly impossible to control the tempo of a heavy weight because gravity is bearing down on you. If you’re focusing too much on tempo, you won’t even be able to complete the lift and run the risk of hurting yourself.

In the end, the tempo you do regularly is perfectly fine and should be the tempo that you spend most of your time doing. Just make sure it’s enough to where you’re controlling the weight on the eccentric portion (part of the lift when gravity/the weight is working with you, not against you) rather than gravity doing most of the work because let’s not forget that the eccentric portion also contributes to hypertrophy!

Tempo training is fine to do every now and then, but in the end, volume is the primary determinant of hypertrophy and drives strength gains. Don’t invest too heavily into tempo work.

Alright everyone, that’s it! Thanks so much for reading and I hope you really enjoyed my series on the Muscle and Strength Training Pyramid aka the hierarchy of what’s important for hypertrophy and strength training. If you want to read the series in order, here’s how you should do it from top to bottom:


¹Role of metabolic stress for enhancing muscle adaptations: Practical applications

Exercise Selection Specifics For Strength and Hypertrophy

We’re nearing the end of the Muscle and Strength Training Pyramid series. Again, this was originally a concept developed by Dr. Eric Helms, but I’m breaking it down for a fresh beginner, so they can use it to design their own program. Let’s dive into how you should pick your exercises based on your goals. I broke it down by strength athletes and bodybuilders, because the recommendations are quite different.

Exercise Selection For Strength Athletes

When talking about exercise selection, the key here is, like our discussion on intensity: specificity. Your goal and sport are largely going to determine which exercises you should and shouldn’t be doing.

Strength athletes like powerlifters and weightlifters have a bit more rigidity in their programming because they need to excel on certain lifts like the squat, bench press, deadlift, or clean & jerk and snatch.

For this reason, much of the training for these athletes should be focused on improving those lifts either from a skill or strength perspective. Consider that these are sports; like football or basketball, there are certain skills that must be practiced to maximize your potential as an athlete. The big three lifts for a powerlifter and snatch and clean & jerk for a weightlifter are the skills they must practice to be the best. Lifting is absolutely a skill that needs to be improved over time to continue seeing results.

When it comes to exercise selection, this allows the strength athlete many options on which exercises they can do despite having a focus on certain lifts. For example, the deadlift can be broken down to multiple levels despite being a single movement. Some lifters struggle with locking out at the top; they can rip it off the floor, but the last few inches are the major grinder. Instead of simply deadlifting more, they can perform rack pulls to improve their power at the top of the lift. Additionally, they can also use bands to increase resistance at the top, so they can practice the sticking point without having to load the bar near the actual weight that they get stuck at. Those are just two examples, but every compound lift can be broken down with more specific exercises to enhance the athlete’s abilities and improve weak points.

Something to keep in mind is that it’s going to be ideal to focus on the actual lift as you approach meet day. It’s not advised to be using bands, chains, and complementary exercises like I mentioned close to the day of the competition. This is because as you approach the competition, you’re also likely dropping some weight and levers on your body are changing with the weight and fat loss causing some factors of your lift to feel different or off. You’ll want some time to account for this by practicing the competition lifts in their entirety. Of course, if you’re facing an injury and can’t perform the lift without pain, then you should stick to what you can do pain-free. In summary, the closer you get, the more specific and rigid you should be unless an injury is present.

Exercise Selection For Bodybuilders

Bodybuilders have the luxury (and curse) of having more flexibility with their training. Having more chance of variability is going to be important for a bodybuilder since their focus is on crafting a symmetrical and properly proportioned physique; with this comes benefits and drawbacks. The benefits being the increased flexibility allows them to use an endless variety of exercises to reach their goal. For a bodybuilder, no one exercise is required. If benching hurts your shoulder but machine pressing doesn’t, that’s perfectly fine and will work just as well to develop your chest. Another benefit is that variety is going to keep things interesting. It can get pretty mundane doing the same lifts over and over. Obviously, you want to have some repetition to track progression, but you have so much to choose from that a training block never has to be the same thing for the sake of improving a specific lift.

One drawback of less specificity includes a lack of focus/ambiguity. Since there is no specific lift that is necessary, it can be easy to simply go through the motions of exercises with no clear goal in mind since you don’t have to lift a certain weight on a meet day. To combat this, you can set your own strength or rep goals for lifts. For example, you can set a goal to leg press 5 plates on each side 20 times. Now, you have some structure to your training and can design weekly progression to reach that goal. Once you do reach it, set another goal!

Some quick rules of thumb for exercise selection for bodybuilders:

  • Since you are working to build a well-rounded physique, select exercises that are going to cover each muscle group. Don’t simply leave one behind. If a muscle group is too big and is throwing off your proportions, simply drop the volume to maintenance for some time to allow other muscles to catch up. See Dr. Mike Israetel’s posts on Maintenance Volume (MV) and volume landmarks as good baselines for determining your MV.
  • Find exercises that you enjoy. This is very important because if you pick exercises you feel are “necessary” but you hate them, you’re going to just go through the motions and not focus on the contraction or push yourself on it. Don’t underestimate enjoyment while you train.
  • Spend some time on the exercises you land on instead of bouncing around all the time. While you don’t need to lift a certain weight for any competition, spending 4-8 weeks on a static group of exercises will help you improve your skills of lifting. You can also establish familiar movement patterns and feel more comfortable in that exercise as you push yourself further. In addition, the more time you spend on a lift, the better you can establish a mind-muscle connection with it rather than focusing on simply doing it right, leading to additional hypertrophy!

Should bodybuilders do the big three lifts? I think so! They allow you to accumulate a lot of volume and train lots of different muscles at one time. If you’re strapped for time, compound lifts will be your best friend, but they are also useful for covering your bases. For me, I try to incorporate one heavy compound lift for that muscle group, then I’ll complement it with some isolation exercises so I can cover my bases and then hone in on the details.

That’s exercises selection! If you feel that I missed something or just have a question, shoot me a comment, and I’ll get back to you! Next week, I’ll probably finish this series off and aggregate rest periods and tempo together. Thanks for reading!

The Exaggerated Link Between Meat and Cancer

I know I’m not the first one to touch on this, but I see this still being an issue with the rise of vegetarian and vegan diets. Not to say I have a beef (ha) with people who eat this way, but the claim that red or processed meat causes cancer is one rooted in poor reporting of data.

Here’s the story: In 2015, the World Health Organization (WHO) published a report on meat and its links to causing cancer. They categorized red meat as “probably carcinogenic to humans” and processed meat as “definitely carcinogenic to humans”¹. Sounds scary, right? Here’s the issue with this: the WHO doesn’t measure how dangerous something is or the level of risk the item in question has; it measures the strength of the evidence to indicate that it’s carcinogenic (cancer-causing). While that sounds like the same thing, it’s not. If the studies aren’t well-conducted or not measuring what you’re looking for, then the evidence may be strong, but it’s not accurate.

Before we go further, I want to clarify the difference between “red meat” and “processed meat”. The WHO defines red meat as “all mammalian muscle meat, including, beef, veal, pork, lamb, mutton, horse, and goat”¹. Basically, any meat you see in clear packages that looks fresh from the animal. Processed meat is “meat that has been transformed through salting, curing, fermentation, smoking, or other processes to enhance flavor or improve preservation”¹. Think of hot dogs or turkey and pastrami slices.

Study Designs and Confounding Variables

The issue with the body of evidence about meat and cancer is that a lot of it is from what are known as epidemiological studies. This study design attempts to find the source of a disease by following a specific population over a long period of time (years, decades, lifetime, etc.) and see what happens to them. Through this, they attempt to find trends or common habits and behaviors that a lot of the population does as a potential explanation for a disease or condition.

For example, epidemiological studies have found a strong correlation between smoking and lung cancer formation. Through a different type of study called mechanistic studies, they have discovered the chemicals in tobacco that lead to the lung cancer over time from consistent inhalation of cigarettes. Of course, not everyone who smokes will develop cancer though, so we cannot say with 100% certainty that smoking causes cancer. Epidemiological studies cannot prove anything, just find associations.

Back to meat, the problem with these types of studies and meat consumption is that there are so many other areas and functions of a person’s life that could contribute to cancer formation that these external factors could be driving the cancer formation instead of the meat itself. For example, wealthier countries typically consume more meat than poorer countries. Wealthier countries and individuals can also afford more cigarettes; what if someone was smoking and eating meat but the study only was measuring for meat consumption. Was it the cigarettes or the red meat? This is known as a confounding variable. It’s something that cannot be accounted for in a study that may influence the result.

My personal opinion is that there are many confounding variables that are likely contributing to cancer formation in people who eat meat than the actual consumption of meat itself (meat eaters may be more stressed, unhealthier, sedentary, etc.). So while there is a correlation between processed meat and cancer, there are still so many things that could contribute to it, it probably would serve you better to move around more and eat better than to cut out your occasional deli sandwich or sausage.

Relative Risk

On the other hand, there have been some chemicals found in cooked meat that are carcinogenic, should we be concerned? Probably not and here’s why.

While the risk of red or processed meat and cancer risk has been quantified, the number is very misleading. On the Q&A page of the WHO website and in news outlets, you will see that you have an 18% risk of developing cancer if you eat processed (not red) meat daily. The nuance here is that 18% is a relative risk, not an absolute risk. What this means is that if your current risk of cancer without eating red or processed meat is 3%, then your risk of getting cancer moves up to 3.5% if you choose to eat red or processed meat daily. Why 3.5? Relative risk factors in the risk you already have and then multiplies that by the percentage of the new risk factor (18%). Here’s the actual math:

3% (expressed as a decimal is 0.03) x 18% (1.18 as a decimal because you’re adding the risk of 18% from the 3%, hence the 1 in front of the decimal)=3.5%. Try putting in your calculator 0.03 x 1.18.

So in theory, the risk of developing cancer from red or processed meat is very, very small. Almost insignificant. For that individual, the absolute risk of developing cancer from processed or red meat is 0.5% because their total risk of cancer increased by 0.5% after including the relative risk of 18%.

To clarify, the body of evidence for processed (not red meat) shows a strong link between daily consumption of processed meat and cancer risk, meaning that cancer-causing chemicals are most likely in these processed meat, but the risk of actually getting cancer from these chemicals is so small that there are many other things to worry about than the meat you’re eating. As for red meat, the evidence is not as clear as it is for processed meat. They think there could be a link, but confounding variables are still clouding the final decision. The following is a short concise list of a few more points I want to really hammer home quickly.

Quick Takeaways

  • People say processed meat is in the same category as smoking, so it should be just as bad. Again, this list only measures the strength of the evidence, not the magnitude of risk for the specific item. Smoking is very much more likely to lead to cancer than a hot dog is.
  • The 18% risk that is so popular to throw around is accounting for processed meat consumption on a daily basis. Chances are you’re probably not eating processed meat every single day.
  • There are may things in our lives that come with some sort of risk. And many things can cause cancer. What’s life without the things you enjoy? If you enjoy eating red or processed meat every now and then, freaking have it. If you’re afraid of getting cancer because you ate a slice of deli meat, your priorities are out of whack. My point here is there are many things that will kill you, cause cancer, etc. If you spend your whole life trying to avoid them, what kind of life are you living?

Final Points

Should you cut out red and processed meat? Probably not, as you read, the risk of getting cancer from these foods is very slim (even more slim from unprocessed red meat). Conversely, could you benefit from reducing your intake? Yeah, most likely! There are plenty of sources of animal protein that are not red meats which are still tasty and nutritious along with plant-based protein sources that can be often even more nutrient-dense. Many people could probably live healthier lives if they lowered their meat consumption (but not completely eliminated it).

It just simply does not make sense to completely cut out red or processed meat from your diet if you’re worried about cancer; because chances are, you’re probably doing something else in your life that is contributing more to your cancer risk than some meat. Just enjoy your damn food and don’t eat too much of any one thing. Drop a line in the comments about your thoughts or favorite meat-based recipes! Below you can find some other resources if you want to do more reading for yourself.


¹Q&A on the carcinogenicity of the consumption of red meat and processed meat

Additional Resources

WHO report says eating processed meat is carcinogenic: Understanding the findings

How to interpret IARC findings on red and processed meat as cancer risk factors


The Mind Muscle Connection and Force Velocity Training with Rachel Larson PhD(c)

You can find the podcast on your favorite platform here. Support the cause by leaving a rate, subscription, and review! Thanks for watching/listening!

Rachel Larson is a PhD candidate at Rocky Mountain University of Health Professions and a professor at Arizona State. She is working to publish multiple studies related to the mind muscle connection. Learn what it is and how to apply it to your training here! We cover the mind muscle connection study she worked on, force velocity training, and so much more!

2:32 Actual intro (just some BSing at the beginning)
3:44 Rachel’s intro
5:20 Rachel’s education specifics
7:45 Shift to hypertrophy focus in Rachel’s research
8:50 Defining attentional focus and its importance for hypertrophy
10:45 The mind-muscle connection study design
12:40 External vs. internal focus groups in the study
13:40 Different methods of measuring hypertrophy in research
15:40 When to use external and internal focus/cuing for athletes
16:45 The mechanism of overthinking in sports and why athletes “choke”
19:15 Potential for information overload with athletes
20:30 Is it appropriate to use mind-muscle connection when teaching athletes lifts that require skills?
21:15 Does touching an athlete help establish the mind-muscle connection?
23:08 Would there be different results if trained athletes were used for the study?
24:45 The trouble with using trained athletes for attentional focus studies
26:11 Why is it important to measure dietary adherence?
27:46 Rachel’s pet peeves for research participants (Listen!)
28:42 Rachel’s new study exploring attentional focus for strength gains
32:43 Does internal cuing even with equated volume lead to increased hypertrophy over external cues?
34:40 Force velocity training as a new area for research
37:50 Rachel’s ability to identify biomechanics issues in everyday situations
40:36 Rachel’s pet peeves she sees in the gym
42:50 How do you train people to jump higher?
46:40 Can force velocity profiling help with strength/power athletes?
48:30 Can someone without the exercise science background benefit from using force velocity apps?
54:30 Rachel’s approach coaching Rugby athletes and the need for female research participants
59:25 How does Rachel balance evidence-based with practical experience?
1:03:00 Does using the concepts in research always prove to be effective?
1:05:00 Defining French Contrast Training
1:07:00 Rachel’s totals and her favorite lift
1:10:30 Contrast training for athletic performance
1:13:10 Contacting Rachel
1:14:20 What is one thing you want everyone to know about your field?
1:15:30 Resources for becoming a better coach
Thanks for watching!

Designing Progression Into Your Program Pt. 2: Periodization

We talked about the concept of progressive overload and I introduced some strategies to progress continuously beyond simply doing more reps, sets, or weight. You can find that here. On part 2 of the progression post, I will provide you some simple models/structures you can use to create the actual framework of your program, rather than just throwing some exercises at the wall and choosing what sticks. Here are some of the periodization methods you can use when designing your own training program so you can have a firm pan in place when attacking your goals!

Before I go on, I want to quickly say that periodization is simply planning. It’s putting together a plan of attack to reach your goals, whether it’s detailed or not, the sitting-down and writing something out is periodizing. Obviously, there are structured ways to go about this, but this does not have to be a complicated, hair-pulling out concept. All it is is planning for progress.

Typically, periodization models are in the context of competitions such as powerlifting or weightlifting meets, so they’re usually designed to increase the intensity while simultaneously decreasing the volume over time (read this article to understand those terms further). Basically, you start light-moderate weight with lots of reps and progressively get heavier and lower the amount of reps you’re doing.

The goal of this is to prepare someone to lift the maximum amount of weight at their competition. But what if you don’t care about strength or that’s simply not your goal? Should you decrease the volume and increase the intensity for hypertrophy? It’s possible, plenty of strength athletes do possess a great deal of muscle from their training, but it’s not the only way of doing things.

Linear Periodization

This is a very fundamental way of building your training program; however, this does not mean that it’s an old or out-dated way of doing things. If you have it set up correctly, you will make progress on a linear program. The set-up is exactly what it sounds like. It’s designed to be perfectly linear in terms of volume and intensity. Think about a line graph: Over time, volume should only be falling while intensity should only be increasing until competition day (with the exception of a taper, but that’s another story)graph

This chart does the job of showing what these changes look like conceptually. Don’t use this graph solely as a means of designing your program. As you can see, between each week, the volume/intensity stays the same, simply because you’re not increasing/decreasing these variables every single workout. You decide on a certain volume and intensity for that week (or however long your average cycle of lifting is before you start over again [this is known as a microcycle]).

For example: Say you’re a powerlifter and you want to do your big three lifts at 85% of 1RM this week for 4 reps. With linear periodization, you would continue to lower volume and increase intensity for next week, so you would do your lifts at 87.5% or 90% of 1RM and decrease the reps to 3 per set. Once again, this is relative, and you set it up however it works best for you. This is simply an example. But what about using this model for hypertrophy?

An important distinction between strength and hypertrophy when designing a program is that strength training is specific to high intensities and that usually is accompanied by low volume, so linear periodization focuses on getting the athlete to those lower intensities over time; however, hypertrophy is driven by volume independent of the intensity of the load. So why aren’t we increasing the volume over time in this case? Because this is simply a snapshot in time.

What I mean by that is powerlifters will generally decrease their volume and increase the intensity as we have discussed here. So looking at the chart above pretty much captures their entire macrocycle (the entirety of their training for a meet), but for a bodybuilder, the chart may simply be a snapshot in time because their volume should be increasing over time. If you’re looking for muscle gains, you can definitely implement linear periodization as part of your macrocycle by making the first phase a strength-building phase which will allow you to lift heavier weights next time around so you can start even higher than before because you’re stronger now. Another way you can use this style of periodization is to simply flip it. Increase volume and decrease intensity over time linearly.

For example: if you finish one go at the chart above and start over again at it, you can start with more volume (hence, more muscle growth and progressive overload) because the weights you’re lifting are heavier at the same rep ranges you had before. Instead of squatting 200 for 8s, now you’re squatting 225 for 8s! More gains for you!

Maybe my explanation is a bit strange, but plug in the numbers for yourself and assume your strength increased by 10% after your first round of linear periodization. When you go again, you will theoretically start 10% higher than you did before and stay above what you did before.

This is a long game, so being able to deploy patience is going to be vital to making progress over time.

To summarize linear periodization, you drop volume and increase intensity both in linear fashions. Powerlifters can do this for the entirety of their training cycle and perform well in their sport. For bodybuilders, they may want to run through multiple cycles (pun intended only if you’re not natty) to accumulate strength and hypertrophy over time.

Block Periodization

This style of periodization focuses on a certain skill or goal at a specific point in time. For example, if your goal is to be stronger, then you’re doing a strength block. If you want to build more muscle, you have a block of time dedicated to hypertrophy training. These blocks can vary greatly. Typically, they last from 4-12 weeks, focusing on that specific area before they move on to something else.

In this case, the volume and intensity depends on what the focus of the block is, rather than adjusting it in a linear or regular fashion over time. Now, in utilizing block periodization, many people will still decrease the volume and increase the intensity as they go through different blocks, but you can set it up however you like. In addition, block periodization is typically not used as a method exclusively on its own, meaning it’s incorporated in with other models such as linear or undulating periodization, which is the next model we’ll discuss.

Undulating Periodization

Undulating periodization is simply adjusting (or undulating) the reps, sets, and weight at regular intervals. They two most common ways of doing this are daily (DUP) and weekly (WUP). The idea behind UP is that you never miss out on different adaptations from training because you’re always hitting different rep ranges and intensities. You’ll have some degree of heavy load training for strength and some high volume training for hypertrophy, and everything in between.

For DUP, you change the training variables every day that you train. If you squat 2 times a week, you would undulate the reps, sets, and weight to be different each time. Perhaps one day is a heavy day at 80% for 5-6 reps for 3 sets while the second day is a higher volume day where you’re squatting 65% for 10-12 reps for 4 sets, for example. For DUP, it’s just changing the training variables every day so they’re not the same for any day.

For WUP, you change the training variables weekly. If you’re a bodybuilder and you train each muscle group once a week, then you would adjust the following week. For example, you do pulldowns the first week for 10 reps at an 8 RPE. Next week, you would adjust and do 10 reps at a 9 RPE. Or you do 8 reps at an 8 RPE, etc. etc. It doesn’t matter what you cange, so long as you’re changing something.

Undulating periodization models usually look like hills tightly packed together when graphed because volume and intensity usually switch whenever you undulate your variables. 1st undulation: High volume, low intensity-2nd undulation: Low volume, high intensity. Or somewhere in between. It doesn’t always have to be on the extreme end  of either side (nor should it be). This graph from perfectly shows what an undulating program would look like. Once again, this graph doesn’t show any progression, however, it just shows the concept. In reality, the lines would be trending up or down to show increased volume or intensity over time depending on the goal.

Image result for undulating periodization

To summarize Undulating Periodization, you’re simply adjusting training variables daily, weekly, or however frequently you want to to achieve different training adaptations. You can manipulate volume or intensity. Typically, undulations involve swapping volume and intensity for one another on which is high/low.

Incorporating Different Models Into One

I mentioned before that block periodization is not a method typically used in isolation. It’s incorporated into other models to further provide structure and a focus to the training. It’s possible to have a linear block periodization program. You could have a strength block that focuses on higher intensities and lower volumes then a hypertrophy block that starts at a higher volume than the strength block and gradually decreases volume for high intensity, but never as low as the strength block. It’s simply a way for you to focus your training and specify your goal further.

You could also incorporate block periodization into your DUP or WUP program. Have a strength block that undulates mostly in higher intensities but perhaps has one hypertrophy week every 4 weeks and vice versa for hypertrophy blocks: undulate at higher volumes mostly with a strength-training week every 4 weeks OR HOWEVER YOU WANT TO DO IT. The beauty with all of these periodization models is that you can design it however you want it to look like. It’s 100% up to you on how you want to structure your training. These are simply methods of organizing it.

I hope you gained something valuable out of this, and that it wasn’t too confusing. If so, here is a podcast that sums up the different periodization models very clearly.


  • Periodization is simply planning your training with some degree of organization
  • Linear, block, and undulating periodization are models to help you further structure your training in a way that makes programming progression easier to track and measure
    • These models are not mutually exclusive, and can be combined with one another however you like
  • Try putting together a program for yourself and then compare it to the graphs I have posted here. Do the volume and intensity trends look similar? If so, you’re probably doing it right!
  • Don’t overthink this! Just dive in and practice it.

Next week, we will talk about exercise selection and how to factor that into training. Leave a comment if you have any questions or feel like I didn’t cover something as much as you had hoped!




Designing Progression Into Your Program Pt. 1

You laid the foundation by considering adherence and how to make your program fit into your life. Then you decided how your volume will be distributed via frequency and intensity. It’s specific towards your goal, so you should know which intensities you’ll be in more than others and how often you’ll be training.

Now, it’s time to factor in improvement and actually getting better so you can see your gains increase over time. The most fundamental concept of progression in exercise science is Progressive Overload.

It’s very simple and intuitive, so I won’t spend too much time on it but it’s this: Doing more work over time. In strength/hypertrophy training, we measure “work” by your training volume, so that should increase over time.

How can you increase your volume over time? There’s plenty of ways to do so. Bret Contreras, a well-respected and very accomplished researcher and glute-training extraordinaire devised 12 ways in which you can increase the work amount of work you do in this article:

  • “Lifting the same load for increased distance (range of motion)
  • Lifting the same load and volume with better form, more control, and less effort (efficiency)
  • Lifting the same load for more reps (volume)
  • Lifting heavier loads (intensity of load)
  • Lifting the same load and volume with less rest time in between sets (density)
  • Lifting a load with more speed and acceleration (intensity of effort)
  • Doing more work in the same amount of time (density)
  • Doing the same work in less amount of time (density)
  • Doing more sets with the same load and reps (volume)
  • Lifting the same load and volume more often throughout the week (frequency)
  • Doing the same work while losing body mass (increased relative volume)
  • Lifting the same load and volume and then extending the set past technical failure with forced reps, negatives, drop sets, static holds, rest pause, partial reps, or post-exhaustion (intensity of effort)¹”

All of these methods will increase the amount of work you do over time, so you have plenty of tools at your disposal. It’s not a matter of simply increasing the weight every week. That’s also not possible for some exercises.

Now that you have an understanding of progressive overload and some strategies on how you can apply the concept, let’s move on to some considerations and things to remember when developing your program and how you’re going to progress.

Progress Will Be Different For Everyone

Your progress will be different from your friend’s and that of a professional athlete. The amount you progress will depend on the training stimulus you give yourself, training age, and genetics.

Think about it: Progressive Overload. You should be structuring your program to be rigorous and feel like it’s difficult to complete. In reality, training never gets easier. You just get better and “used to” the feeling of getting your ass kicked by the weights. That’s not to say that you need to kill yourself in the gym every time; but find that balance where you’re progressing with some sessions that feel like shit, but it shouldn’t be every single time.

Training age is a huge factor for the amount of progress you’ll experience. When you’re brand new to weight training, the gains you’ll experience are going to be insane! You’ll increase your muscle mass and strength weekly and feel like a god. After a few months, that will begin to slow down, and you’ll really need to be smart about your programming, playing with different training variables, exercises, and other elements of training.

Once you become an intermediate trainee, the gains come frustratingly slow. I’m currently cutting at the moment after an aggressive bulk for 6 months (I put on about 25-30 pounds). My lean mass, which measures all non-fat tissue and substances in your body including muscle, is coming in just 5 pounds above where I started. So as of now (and I’m not done cutting yet), I’ve netted 5 pounds of muscle. But, that’s going to decrease further as my body fat percentage and weight drops. I’ll probably have netted only 1-2 pounds of muscle gained in the past year and a half.

While this sounds terribly slow and not worth it, it has been because my strength has increased dramatically. Anyway, that was just an example of how progression decreases significantly over time. That’s why it’s important to love the process of training and enjoy this beyond the way you look in the mirror.

The last bit is genetics. Genetics pay another role because people as experienced as me can still possibly see newbie gains or similar to it simply because they’ve been an athlete forever or their parents were. Keep this in mind though, if your genetics aren’t that of a pure bred athlete, you shouldn’t quit because you aren’t progressing like someone else. Part of training is overcoming the difficulty and struggle you put yourself through each session. That’s an award in itself. Be proud of ANY progress you experience because it’s yours and no one can take it from you.

Progression Is Not a Linear Process

This is huge to keep in mind because it’s easy to get into the mindset that you need to be increasing weight, reps, frequency, etc. all the time. That’s just not true. As your training age increases, improvements are going to come slower, and you may even get caught up in some stale programming and lose progress. This is also normal and completely part of the process. The chart of progression is not a straight line to the right. It’s up and down forever. The important thing is that, over time, it’s generally increasing. Whether that’s a week, month, year, 10 years, etc. it’s different for everyone, so buckle up and be ready for the long haul of getting better.

During some periods, you may hit the wall and feel crappy or simply not want to push too hard. When you feel this way, it could be worth it to do a de-load. A de-load is simply reducing the volume you’re doing for a period of time, usually one normal cycle of training. I’m de-loading right now because I had food poisoning last week and it set me back a bit, so I’m reducing my volume, so I can recover fully and be ready to hit it hard again next week. There’s nothing wrong with reducing your work for a bit to give yourself enough time to recover and honestly just take a small break from training.

It can be taxing on your body and mind to lift often. You’ll need to de-load sometimes just to recharge physically and mentally, and that’s perfectly fine. Just make sure you’re not taking a month long hiatus!

Next week, we’ll discuss some ways you can structure your training so you can plan your progression in a calculated and intelligent way.

I hope you found this useful on how to progress over time. The real meat of how to progress will be in those 12 training variables I shared at the top, so I encourage you to look at those and see how you can make those fit into your own program. In addition, progress is just as much about improving mentally than it is physcially. Patience is something you’ll have to learn to adopt as part of your strategy because this endeavor of strength/hypertrophy requires a lot of it.

Good luck. Please let me know how else I can help.


¹The Ten Rules Of Progressive Overload